ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY EOQ MODEL: Inventory Management Models : A Tutorial Supply Chain Resource Cooperative SCRC North Carolina State UniversitySupply Chain Resource Cooperative NC State University

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company spoilage or obsolescence is key to reducing production costs. EOQ can do this by helping to optimize inventory levels that are neither too high nor too low. The XYZ Equipment Company estimates its carrying cost at 15% and its ordering cost at $9 per order.

  • High inventory costs depend majorly on how you order, if there is anything that is damaged, the number of products that lie there not getting sold.
  • Let us understand how each character in the economic order quantity equation functions to give you the optimal order quantity to meet customer demand.
  • Not only do you lose the sale, but you also damage your reputation and risk losing future business.
  • EOQ always assumes that you order the same quantity at each reorder point.
  • Determining your EOQ can be challenging, but 3PLs like ShipBob can take some of the related heavy lifting off your plate.

But too much working capital can eat into your profits, and it also represents a big opportunity cost. Full BioMichael Boyle is an experienced financial professional with more than 10 years working with financial planning, derivatives, equities, fixed income, project management, and analytics. A subject matter expert in building simple solutions for day-to-day problems, Rakesh has been involved in technology for 30+ years. Looking to help delivery businesses eliminate on-field delivery challenges, Rakesh started Upper Route Planner with the ultimate goal of simplistic operations in mind.

Why Is Economic Order Quantity Important?

I have seen so many businesses where order management was lacking the most basic rules or processes. In those cases, implementing simple inventory management principles step-by-step can often bring great results. But in reality, lead time may vary over the year, and you have uncertainty about the supply delays. In general, suppliers offer discounts depending on the quantities ordered.

  • EOQ can only be used if customer demand is consistent, e.g. there are no seasonal fluctuations.
  • When reordering, the stock is assumed to be zero or fully consumed.
  • The economic order quantity formula takes into account multiple factors to bring down total costs and gives you insights into managing inventory.
  • It’s worth noting that the formula assumes the annual demand to be relatively flat, meaning that new EOQs should be calculated with every purchase.
  • As already mentioned, the objective of the EOQ is to determine the ideal order size in units or quantities of materials to buy in order to avoid stockouts and overstocking.
  • Safety stock is also often used during busy shopping seasons like the holidays or during a big promotion or flash sale.

The estimated annual requirement is 48,000 units at a price of $4 per unit. To determine the procurement cost of multi-item orders, the total cost is divided by the number of items ordered during a given period of time. The Economic Order Quantity is the specific total order amount for a firm’s inventory that minimizes the total cost of inventory management. Not at all designed to consider any fluctuation in the order quantity or carrying costs.

Should EOQ be high or low?

Economic order quantity is a formula used to determine the optimal order quantity that balances the cost of ordering and holding inventory. EOQ calculations for your business offer several benefits that impact your bottom line. It’s a great way to grasp how much product needs to be purchased to maintain an efficient ecommerce supply chain while keeping costs down. By using EOQ to calculate the optimal quantity of inventory to order, you can minimize the total direct cost and free up working capital.


You can check Economic Order Quantity Eoq counts in real-time, set automatic reorder points, and better forecast demand. ShipBob reduces inventory costs by allowing you to only pay for the space you need in our warehouses. Determining your EOQ can be challenging, but 3PLs like ShipBob can take some of the related heavy lifting off your plate.

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The formula assumes that the demand, order costs, and holding costs remain constant. Because of thisit, it is ’s next to impossible to calculate business events like demand surges during a certain period, increasing inventory costs, or purchase discounts. The first is an estimate of the number of units of inventory required per year. This is the number of units the company needs for the entire year. The third variable is the estimated cost of holding one unit of inventory for a year.

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